Tag: Castlemilk

Community Activism in Castlemilk, Part 2 Castlemilk Writers’ Work Shop and Castlemilk’s Local History Groups

As well as producing their own newspaper (Castlemilk Press discussed in Part 1), people in Castlemilk also got involved in community activism through education. Castlemilk Writers’ Work Shop, was funded by the Workers’ Educational Association (WEA). As much as the class was about education and creative writing, as Alison Miller, the tutor for the group stated in Castlemilk’s Writing:

The people in the group also offer each other friendship, support and encouragement and help that go well beyond the group meetings themselves

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So it was an important place for the members to express themselves through their writing but it also provided a forum to discuss issues in the community.

Many of the poems and stories, in Castlemilk's Writing (their second publication, the first was entitled Mud & Stars), considered the realities of life in Castlemilk and Glasgow in the 1980s. ‘Christmas Party’ by Janette Shepherd, also reprinted in Farquar McLay (ed), Workers City (Glasgow: Clydeside Press, 1988) is particularly effective in exploring gender relations, single parenthood and the hopelessness that could be experienced by women in poverty.

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Local History in Castlemilk

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The People’s History Group was established in the late 1980s and was similarly funded by the WEA. The group produced The Big Flit in 1990 which included the written testimonies of early Castlemilk residents on their memories of moving to the scheme and the early years of community life. Simultaneously the Castlemilk History Group, which was also funded by the WEA, published The Incomplete History of Castlemilk (with their tutor Catriona Burness) in 1993. This book traces the history of Castlemilk House and estate from its early beginnings to the construction of the housing estate in the 1950s through to the then current day of the early 1990s. Both books are available on Castlemilk History facebook page, which continues the work of these two local history groups in telling the history of the area. This page also provides a virtual space for residents and former residents to reminisce and share memories of growing up in Castlemilk, the games they used to play, the schools they went to and the ‘characters’ they remember. The page currently has over 4,500 ‘likes’ which attests to the quality of the page and also the appetite people have for telling their stories of life in Castlemilk.

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Challenging Perceptions

By composing poems and stories about their lives, or about imagined people within their community or similar communities, the authors featured in Casltemilk’s Writing challenged and complicated the simplistic stereotypes of Castlemilk in the local and national media. Similarly by reclaiming the history of Castlemilk, both of the housing scheme and the pre-existing estate of the Stuarts of Castlemilk, the local history groups were able to tell their stories, make links and establish the history of their community within Scotland’s history. Both endeavours made the people of Castlemilk visible and told their stories in their own words. But perhaps more importantly the Writers’ Work Shop, The People’s History Group and the Local History Group brought people together for debate, discussion and friendship.

Resources

For those who want to find out more about Castlemilk’s history see the Castlemilk History facebook page which contains an extensive resource of photographs, videos and posts on all aspects of Castlemilk’s history.

For more information on the Workers Education Association (WEA) see http://www.wea.org.uk/about and in Scotland http://www.wea.org.uk/scotland

Also for a history of the WEA see Steven K. Roberts (ed), A Ministry of Enthusiasm: Centenary Essays on the Workers' Educational Association (London: Pluto Press, 2003).

For those interested in the community publishing movement of the 1980s and its historical legacy see B. Jones, ‘The Uses of Nostalgia’, Cultural and Social History, 7:3 (2010), pp. 355-74.

For those interested in reading more about Workers City all three books published by the collective are available online - http://www.workerscity.org/

Valerie Wright, University of Glasgow

Community Activism in Castlemilk - Part 1 Castlemilk Press

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Source: Dougrie Flats ©Jim Richardson – Castlemilk History facebook page

When people think about Castlemilk I’m sure there are a few stereotypical views that come to mind. I’m not going to repeat them. I’d not spent a lot of time in Castlemilk before I started work on ‘Housing, Everyday Life and Wellbeing over the long term: Glasgow 1950-1975’, a project based at the University of Glasgow exploring post-war housing and specifically the city’s high rise construction drive of the late 1960s. Now, having met a lot of lovely people (John and Carole Cooper, Jean Devlin and Susan Casey among them) and learnt a lot about what it was like to live in Castlemilk in the early years of the scheme; the 1960s and 1970s, and what it’s like in the present day, I think I know the place a lot better. It’s only through getting out and talking to people that we can challenge our own and other people’s assumptions about a place.

I’m particularly interested in the everyday experiences of the high flats in Castlemilk: Bogany, Dougrie and especially Mitchellhill, as Pearl Jephcott, a sociologist working at the University of Glasgow in the late 1960s, had made Mitchellhill one of her case studies in her study of high rise living in Glasgow published in 1971 entitled Homes in High Flats. However I’ve heard plenty of interesting stories about life in Castlemilk, both low and high rise - views and experiences which question and in some cases confirm, but always complicate, many of the stereotypical views represented in the local media.

One way in which the community in Castlemilk could challenge such stereotypes was through the production of their own media, their own newspapers, their own history and their own culture. This was a strategy employed in many communities under attack in the media in the 1970s onwards, and there are numerous examples of local newspapers, Worker’s Education Association sponsored local history groups and creative writing groups where people could make their voices heard and try and change the representation of their communities.

Here I’m going to focus on examples from Castlemilk, all of which have helped me to understand the nature of community activism in this, one of Glasgow’s ‘notorious’ peripheral schemes. In Part 1 I’ll focus on Castlemilk Press and will follow up in Part 2 with Castlemilk Writers’ Workshop and Castlemilk’s local history groups.

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Source: Castlemilk Press, February 1972, front page - ‘Castlemilk in the News’ – geocities

In the first issue of the Castlemilk Press published in February 1972, the Rev Leslie Newton outlined his reasons for establishing the paper (which he emphasised was not party political and not profit making):

Castlemilk needs to develop a self-conscious identity. Let us be proud to belong to this place which has been so unjustly labelled by many persons who are not involved in its on going life. We are enthusiastic for Castlemilk. We believe in you.

There are many interesting articles in the Castlemilk Press exploring why the population of the scheme was declining, why people were moving, the housing conditions, the inability of people to pay their heating bills, how to prevent vandalism etc. There were reports of events in the community, fairs, competitions, school photographs and football results and adverts for local shops. Space was devoted to local politics with election addresses from Teddy Taylor and his opponents over the years. Local history also featured.

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Source: Ardencraig Road at Tormusk Road ©Jim Richardson – Castlemilk History Facebook Page

But what really interested me was the ‘Women’s Page’ in which the author, Irene, departed from her usual tips for thrifty shopping, home-made cleaning products and recipes for tasty cheap dinners and instead, in March 1973, addressed the gendered dynamics of life in Castlemilk directly by discussing ‘Women’s Lib’ (to be fair she addressed all sorts of ‘social problems’ in Castlemilk):

Why does ‘Women’s Lib’ seem to have no impact on the women of Castlemilk. Perhaps it has nothing to offer us or perhaps it is that we don’t realise that it can offer us something beyond its permissive sexual liberty which is signified by the ‘burning of bras’.

In a community like ours it is accepted that the woman’s place is in the home rearing her children. The only concessions made here to Women’s Lib are that the women can now choose how many children she wants; and that is acceptable, and often necessary for her to work, even if the children are quite young. Apart from these, a night out at the bingo and an occasional bus run are the few liberties our menfolk allow us.

It is a fact that the working man still sees the home as the exclusive domain of the wife. Admittedly more men are beginning to realise that it is their responsibility to look after the welfare of their kids instead of passing the buck to the wives all the time. Too often though, the man only begins to acknowledge that children have needs when they turn into young adults and often by then it is too late.

The working man’s attitude to his home is most obviously seen as regards the actual jobs in the home. If you are lucky your husband may lend a hand now and again. This is fair enough if the wife is at home all day and the man is working all week.

Where I find room to complain is when the man leaves everything in the home to the wife regardless of whether she is ill or working during the day.

Of course in a society like our where men are men (and prove it by such feats as wife-bashing and beer-swigging), we women are going to have a very difficult job if we want to persuade them that if the wife is working and contributing financially to the home, the least the man can do is help about the house.

However, we can’t blame the men entirely for their views on women. After all it is women who teach men a great deal of what they learn. From childhood we are taught girls play with dolls and help mother in the home and boys play with tools, cars and don’t help mother. Personally I can’t see what is wrong with getting boys to help out in the home – they can earn their pocket money this way.

Maybe we won’t change our menfolks views on what we as women should or shouldn’t do, but it is our power to see that our children won’t see women as being mere slaves in the home.

‘Women’s Lib’ or ‘second wave feminism’ and it’s seven demands are most often associated with middle-class women, here Irene is challenging the domestic division of labour prevalent in the West of Scotland on her own terms and in her own words.

Unfortunately it would seem that there was not much appetite for Women’s Lib in Castlemilk, in June 1973 Irene wrote:

This is going to be the last article on the theme of Women’s Lib, unless, of course, we are showered with letters demanding to know more about it. […] Why don’t we for once take a tip from Women’s Lib and be ourselves instead of conforming to what our men would like us to be: don’t dye your hair for him or slim for him – do these things if you want to but not if you’re pressurised into it.

These aspects of Women’s Lib that I have chosen relate to you as an individual to how you see yourself. The other side of the coin is the women in action aspect of Women’s Lib. It could work here in Castlemilk but it would involve a great deal of effort on your part. Why don’t we get together a consumer group to keep a tab on prices: a group to fight for our local needs.

Why don’t we indeed? ….. perhaps because there aren’t enough of us interested in anything beyond the bounds of our front doors.

Irene’s concerns are not that different from many women today. We still need ‘Women’s Lib’ or feminism, but we also need a lot more women like Irene who are willing to go beyond the bounds of their front doors!

Resources:

Editions of Castlemilk Press can be viewed in the Glasgow Collection in the Mitchell Library (Level 5 – just ask at the desk).

If you are interested in learning more about the history of feminism in the 1970s in Scotland see Sarah Browne’s book The Women’s Liberation Movement in Scotland.

If you want to know more about the contributions women have made to Scotland’s history see Women’s History Scotland, the Centre for Gender History at the University of Glasgow or you could visit the Glasgow Women’s Library.

If you want to know more about Castlemilk’s history see part 2 of this blog and Castlemilk History facebook page.

Valerie Wright, University of Glasgow

The Castlemilk Anti-Bedroom Tax Campaign

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© Castlemilk Anti-Bedroom Tax Campaign

In the March of 2013, I think it was Socialist Party Scotland, organised a public meeting in this very room [Main Hall, Castlemilk Community Centre] and I think there was over 100 people turned up to that. So a sense of injustice and fury was already building because the Bedroom Tax was imminent. This thing was coming in the next week to ten days and people didn’t feel they had enough information about how this was going to affect them. ‘The Bedroom Tax - what does it mean for me?’ There were figures bandied around. ‘It’s going to cost me 14% extra or 25% of my rent, what is actually going on here?’

This was unfair because no matter how many spare rooms you had, people’s rents were different depending on what area you lived in, even within Castlemilk. The rents down the valley in Drakemire were actually different from that in Ardencraig even though the house sizes were the same, so even though it was 14% or 25% the figures were going to work out differently for people living in the same type of accommodation. [...] What we need to remember is when they built the scheme they built all the houses the same size, they were all family units. The majority of houses are three apartment houses. There are a few four apartment houses and I don’t think there is many single apartment houses. So the whole idea that the government were going to shift people freely into smaller accommodation was just never going to happen. There was absolutely no way that this could happen in this area and in similar areas in the city, and that could be seen throughout the country. It wasn’t just here in Glasgow, it was the same throughout Scotland.

So the public meeting in the March of 2013 was basically the birth of the Castlemilk Anti-Bedroom Tax campaign. We started having meetings regularly. There are people in this room that belonged to that group and we continued to have these meetings but we also stood in the shopping centre on a Friday afternoon talking to folk. We got a petition organised and one of the things we focused on in the petition was evictions. There are a lot of similarities here with the Anti-Poll Tax Campaign […]. It is no accident that the banners are similar, because we learnt a lot from the Poll Tax campaign. That campaign was ‘Can’t Pay, Won’t Pay’, and you can see from this [Jean points to the Anti-Bedroom Tax banner] that its a ‘Can’t Pay, Won’t Leave’ scenario because the main concern – and this is the difference between us and the Poll Tax – is that we were at risk of people losing their homes. It wasn’t just about losing independence and losing furniture, which was bad enough, but being evicted and ending up on the street. It was a really scary, scary thing for folk, so the decision was made – because there had been Anti-Bedroom Tax groups springing up across the country – to get them all together, much as the Anti-Poll Tax Unions did, so that we could share resources and come to a decision about what route we should take. It was decided at that point that it was a bit too risky to put out a ‘Don’t Pay’ scenario because it might put people at risk of them losing their homes and becoming homeless. That was a difficult decision but that is the decision people eventually came to.

TEMP.20585 Castlemilk Anti-Poll Tax copy 3

Some of the similarities [with the Anti-Poll Tax Campaign] are actually quite incredible and I think it is fair to say that the Bedroom Tax really used a lot of their techniques, like the phone tree scenario but by that point we did have Facebook and we did have text messaging. We fortunately didn’t ever have to do anything as drastic as the Anti- Poll Tax campaigners had to do [i.e. physically obstruct bailiffs]. There were about three different times where someone received text messaging or there was an alert on Facebook – ‘Oh we think there is an eviction’. There was one in Pollok. I think it was the first in Glasgow. People arrived on the scene and that was really quite quickly quelled by having a meeting with the local housing association and Govan Law Centre – we made use of the free legal advice out there to make sure people had legal representation and back up. It was quelled by people just turning up, having a meeting and realising that this really isn’t the best scenario - people being turned out on to the street. There was another one in Greenock, a girl in Greenock who was threatened with eviction. She had her say in court. We arrived at court, we stood outside the court, lobbied outside the court, marched round to the housing association, lobbied outside the housing association where eventually the manager spoke to the tenant and a representative from the Scottish Anti-Bedroom Tax Federation and that again was quelled so we never found ourselves in the drastic stage the people from the Anti-Poll Tax movement found themselves in.

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For me I really need to end by saying this is still happening, this is still very real for people. Particularly with folk in England and Wales who are still suffering greatly, they are still arguing for no evictions. We have had a wee bit of respite right now [in Scotland] but the thing still exists; it’s not been abolished. I don’t want to end on a bad note but that’s the reality for us in Scotland. The campaigning has worked in terms of mitigation, but I think to keep it real, we need to keep in mind that for us, for me certainly anyway, the campaigning has to continue considering the situation we are still in. Do your best to help to actually get the thing abolished and a lot of the other welfare reform agenda to be abolished as well.

Jean Devlin, Community Activist

The image directly above and Jean's words are from the Banner Tales of Glasgow workshop, Castlemilk Community Centre, 01/05/2015. The YouTube clip below shows Anti-Bedroom Tax Campaigners singing The Anti-Bedroom Tax Song by Citizen Smart at a demo in George Square. Presumably the words to the song are written on the back of the placard! The song is sung to to the tune of Adam McNaughton's Jeely Piece Song.